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I suspect the book will find its greatest role living in the cars of those practitioners carrying out Endoscopy in the field. However, it will also be useful as an aide memoire for students and those sitting certificate examinations. We are always looking for ways to improve customer experience on Elsevier. We would like to ask you for a moment of your time to fill in a short questionnaire, at the end of your visit.

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Thanks in advance for your time. Skip to content. Search for books, journals or webpages All Pages Books Journals. Authors: Safia Barakzai. Hardcover ISBN: Imprint: Saunders Ltd. Published Date: 10th October Page Count: If disease is detected, it can sometimes be treated at the same time or biopsy can be performed to test for cancer or other pathology.

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And others are Colposcopy: direct visualization of the vagina and cervix to detect cancer, inflammation, and other conditions. Cystoscopy: examination of the bladder, urethra, urinary tract, uteral orifices, and prostate men with insertion of the endoscope through the urethra. Laparoscopy: visualization of the stomach, liver and other abdominal organs including the female reproductive organs, for example, the fallopian tubes. Laryngoscopy : examination of the larynx voice box. Proctoscopy , sigmoidoscopy, proctosigmoidoscopy: examination of the rectum and sigmoid colon.

Thoracoscopy : examination of the pleura sac that covers the lungs , pleural spaces, mediastinum, and pericardium Rodriguez-Panadero, F. Some this limitation has written in details in the following page. Technologic Limitations Associated with Endoscopy. While endoscopes do come in a wide variety of diameters and lengths, at times an access route does not present itself.

Often another paleo imaging modality such as x-ray or CT has identified an area of special interest within the mummy or artifact Beckett and Conlogue, This may be a unique ceramic or metallic burial inclusion or a calcified lymph node. No matter the case, the decision to create an entry route for the introduction of an endoscope should be weighed carefully. A risk to benefit analysis should be conducted to assure that the potential information gained would be worth making an access route Beckett and Conlogue, In addition, a high probability of successful biopsy or retrieval should be assured.

The smallest diameter endoscope should be selected and the most direct route should be chosen that would have the greatest possibility of success. The procedure should be well documented and directed by alternate imaging methods as indicated Beckett, R. G, Even if there is access to internal body cavities or archaeological objects, another limitation of the endoscopic method is the potential lack of maneuverability. The space entered by the endoscope may be so narrow that the only view is that which is directly in front of the lens. While imaging data can still be collected, this lack of maneuverability can be a major limitation of this method Tang, C.

Handbook of Equine Respiratory Endoscopy

Another major limitation to the images derived from endoscopy is the interpretability of the data. The data obtained from endoscopic methods is descriptive rather than qualitative Tang, C. In desiccated human remains, the internal organs are often not in their typical anatomical position. Thoracic cavity contents can be found in the abdominal or pelvic cavities. Depending on the degree of taphonomic change, the morphologic features of organs, tissues and other anatomic structures can be very different from those seen in a well-preserved mummy and certainly different from living or recently dead humans or animals Beckett, R.

The characteristics of desiccated tissues and organs, as well as their potential assist with the collection of otherwise unavailable data. Further, the endoscope helps alleviate the need to autopsy mummified human remains, which, in turn, helps preserve the remains for future research and maintain appropriate respect for the deceased taken to control for any cross-contamination potential in this endoscopic application Beckett, R.

It is important to realize that even though the endoscopic procedures are non-destructive, they are invasive. Any time an instrument is introduced into a body or artifact, there is a great risk of destructing some material Beckett, R. The endoscope may also become destructive internally if the operator is too aggressive when trying to access deeper body regions or maneuver the distal end of the endoscope within the body or artifact.

Since internal anatomic landmarks may not be as reliable in a desiccated mummified body, it is often difficult for the endoscopist to be certain as to their regional or exact endoscopic location within that body Queensland Health, Location verification via x-ray, CT, or fluoroscopy is essential prior to recording images produced with the endoscope in a given position.

Position verification adds validity to the image description attained from the endoscope.

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  8. Your procedure may not be able to be finished due to problems inside your body or because of technical problems Queensland Health, A major archaeological concern with the use of endoscopic methods is that of illumination limitations within a large enclosure such as a coffin, tomb, or room. Standard endoscopes, both medical and industrial, do not have illumination capacities to accommodate a larger hollow space Beckett, R.

    The endoscopist must be prepared and develop slave lighting strategies for these circumstances Beckett, R. Limitations of Endoscopist. Endoscopist must also receive training in order to perform endoscopy Atar, M. He or she must has adequate knowledge about it. This lack of knowledge of instrumentation variation can greatly limit any given research effort and impede the data collection process from this method Atar, M.

    Another limitation is that of potential contamination of the sample when endoscope is used in biopsy SGNA Practice Committee, Even with the most careful adherence to sample collection protocol, this limitation poses a great risk to the success of such procedures. Great care must be another major human limitation is that of minimal experience with both the instrumentation associated with endoscopic methods, as well as the limitations associated with the interpretation of data collected by this method.

    Experience is critical in the reliability of the technique selected and the resultant images SGNA Practice Committee, There are several consequences to an incompetently performed endoscopy. Most obvious are the occurrence of patient injury, such as a perforation, bleeding or a sedation-related complication, and incorrect or missed diagnoses Beckett, b; Beckett and Conlogue, Technically incomplete procedures expose the patients to two kinds of risks: those of a missed or delayed diagnosis, and those of additional procedures and other testing for the same presenting complaint ASGE.

    Finally, another human limitation to this method is in the reporting of not only the results from an endoscopic study, but from the technique and instrumentation used Beckett, b; Beckett and Conlogue, If endoscopy use in anthropologic and archaeological research is to continue to advance, reproducible studies must be reported. The report should also include supporting photographs of the procedure as well as radiographic verification of endoscope position within the remains or object Beckett and Conlogue, Small Samples. Possible Complications. According to the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, complications may also ensue if the endoscope has not been properly cleaned between patients Moore, L.

    E, Examples of endogenous infections include pneumonia resulting from aspiration of oral secretions in a sedated patient or bacteremia resulting from microscopic tissue trauma occurring during endoscope insertion or removal Moore, L. Such infections are preventable with strict adherence to accepted reprocessing guidelines Moore, L.

    Exogenously acquired microorganisms may originate from a number of sources.


    Endoscopes have been implicated in the transmission of disease specifically nosocomial infections when appropriate cleaning, disinfection or sterilization procedures were not employed. The major obstacle preventing widespread use of this technique is the high initial cost of the equipment Kovaleva, J.

    Consequently, endoscopy is used primarily in specialty practices and referral hospitals Kovaleva, J. Most contemporary flexible endoscopes cannot be heat sterilized and are designed with multiple channels, which are difficult to clean and disinfect. The ability of bacteria to form biofilms on the inner channel surfaces can contribute to failure of the decontamination process Kovaleva, J. Endoscopic procedures are minimally invasive in nature, and have been found to decrease the postoperative stress response and postoperative pain compared with similar procedures performed by an open approach SJ Van Lue, AP Van Lue, Endoscopy offers a minimally invasive means of collecting biopsies, hence achieving a definitive diagnosis, which in turns enables more accurate and targeted therapy and improved case success Stephen J.

    Divers, There is an ongoing effort to make minimally invasive surgery even less invasive through research and the development of new and improved medical devices SJ Van Lue, AP Van Lue, Few national and international guidelines highlight the need for the cleaning of flexible endoscopes to be carried out using formulations without any fixation potential, but use of peracetic acid for cleaning is discouraged G Kampf, PM Fliss. Purchasing a versatile scope, undergoing appropriate training, and educating your clients are key to implementing a successful endoscopy program Clark, J.

    Generally, Endoscopy should not be a substitute for a complete work-up. But its application is very important in veterinary medicine. It is used to take biopsies of organs, remove foreign objects, examine the interior surface of hollow structure, and perform procedure typically done more invasive surgery. However, if for any of a number of reasons tissue samples obtained endoscopically are inadequate for diagnosis, unacceptable trauma occurs during endoscopic removal of foreign objects or mucosal surface cannot be adequately examined endoscopically, then endoscopy then endoscope cease to be useful.

    In addition to that complications may occur, and there are limitations to endoscopy. Atar, M. Transnasal endoscopy: Technical considerations, advantages and limitations. World J GastrointestEndosc, 6 6 , Beckett, R. The Anatomical Record, 6 , Birk, M. The histopatho- ostium of that guttural pouch.

    Propria e. The histopathological cies.

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    Diagnosis was based on case foals constitute Endoscopically, history, clinical appraisal, and physical examination, besides en- the lesions grow rostrally into the nasopharynx, and accompa- doscopic, microbiologic and histopathologic investigations. However, an- other three cases of ethmoid swelling were diagnosed osteoma Donkeys are still used as work animals and play an and an osseous fibroma by Cilliers et al.

    Radiologically and histopathologically revealed The etiology of epiglottitis is unknown. But possible ethmoid cystic dilatations with glandular acini with inflamma- predisposing factors include pharyngeal inflammation, intermit- tory cells infiltration in between the lamina propria of mucosa. Ex- is a hallmark of neoplasia as mentioned by Bell et al. Cartilage at the tip on the microbiological examination. Similar lesion was located of the epiglottis may be exposed, resulting in granulation tissue more anteriorly and resulted in the development of a fistula be- formation. Chondritis of the epiglottic cartilage can develop and tween the right and left guttural pouches and the dorsal pharyn- may result in epiglottic deformity during healing.

    In the present work, it has been diagnosed in centesis. The latter technique should be performed with great a stallion, two foals, and a mare during endoscopic examina- care, as there is risk of damage to nervous and vascular tissues.

    Equine Respiratory Endoscopy & Tracheal Wash - Towcester Veterinary Centre Equine Clinic

    This might be due Recurrent laryngeal neuropathy RLN is considered to its common access to pathogens either through inhalation via one of the upper airway obstructive diseases. The knowledge the nasopharynx or ingested through the oropharynx. During the of its etiology, pathogenesis, methods of assessment and the acute phase, the follicles were edematous and hyperemic, with critical evaluation of treatment. The accom- half of the larynx, almost invariably the left side, shows no ac- panying nasal discharge is initially serous, then converted into tive abductory or adductory motility, can be determined easily mucopurulent.

    Concurrently, pharyngeal follicular hyperplasia at rest. However, controversy still exists regarding the clinical involves the proliferation primarily of one of the five tonsillar significance of asymmetric or asynchronous movements of the structures in the equine.