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Convergent evolution of seed dispersal by ants, and phylogeny and biogeography in flowering plants A global survey. University of Debrecen. Abstract Seed dispersal is a fundamental life history trait in plants.

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Fingerprint myrmecochory. Convergent evolution of seed dispersal by ants, and phylogeny and biogeography in flowering plants: A global survey. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics , 12 1 , Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics.

Lengyel, S. A mapping of families containing myrmecochorous genera on a dated angiosperm supertree showed that myrmecochory has evolved in most of the major angiosperm lineages and that it is more frequent in younger families crown group age",. AU - Gove, Aaron D. AU - Latimer, Andrew M. AU - Majer, Jonathan D.

In particular, we have a great interest in Valerianaceae and Dipsacales, and in the origin and early evolution of flowering plants. Also from an empirical standpoint, we are extremely interested in the biogeography of the Northern Hemisphere, the evolution of alpine flora, and molecular evolution, especially as it pertains to phylogenetic inference.

Evolution of Plants

In collaboration with several other researchers, we have been involved in the molecular phylogenetic analyses of a number of other angiosperm groups, including Malphigiaceae, palms, Polemoniaceae phlox family , and the basal eudicots buttercups, poppies, and magnolias. Most recently, we have be using chloroplast genome sequences to infer phylogenetic relationships among major lineages of angiosperms. Four ancient gene duplication events are inferred: in chronological sequence, they occurred along the ancestral branches leading to extant tracheophytes, euphyllophytes, seed plants, and flowering plants, respectively.

If these gene duplications were always the result of WGD events, the expected increase in gene lineages was typically countered by loss of at least one descendant lineage. Local duplications affecting single ancestral loci could also explain the asymmetric gene tree topology that our phylogenetic analyses reconstruct.

However, multiple examples of gene losses soon after duplication are also apparent. For instance, among flowering plants, Amborella alone may contain all the GSK3 gene lineages descended from duplications along the ancestral branch to extant angiosperms. Gene expression data suggest that the Group I. To identify GSK3 homologs we used a reciprocal blast strategy: nucleotide sequences of Arabidopsis GSK3 genes [ 10 ] were first used to seed tblastx searches to identify potential GSK3 homologs in the above sequence data bases, and these were next used as queries in tblastx searches of all Arabidopsis genes.

In total, we collected GSK3 genes from 67 species representing all major green plant lineages: green algae 2 species, 3 sequences , liverworts 2 species, 3 sequences , mosses 2 species, 8 sequences , lycophytes 2 species, 3 sequences , monilophytes 8 species, 51 sequences , gymnosperms 12 species, 73 sequences , and angiosperms 39 species, sequences. Accession numbers for all sequences in their relevant databases are provided in Additional file 1.

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Sequences from the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri were specified as outgroups. Phylogenetic trees were viewed and edited with FigTree v1. For this study, data sets for each species were searched to obtain reads per kilobase per million mapped RPKM values [ 33 ] for each GSK3 gene across multiple vegetative and reproductive tissues.

For comparisons with Arabidopsis GSK3 genes, normalized signal intensity values were obtained for corresponding tissues from the AtGenExpress microarray data set [ 27 ]. Trends Plant Sci. J Cell Sci. The Plant Journal. J Mol Evol. Plant Physiol. BMC Plant Biology. Syst Biol. Nucleic Acids Res. Genome Biol. Mol Biol Evol. Curr Opin Plant Biol.

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Flowering Plant Phylogeny | Phylogeny | Science nature:__cat__, Science nature, Science

Mol Genet Genomics. Mol Biol Cell. Nat Genet. Nucl Acids Res.

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Nat Meth. Download references. XQ conducted database searches, sequence alignments, and phylogenetic analyses. ASC performed the gene expression analyses. All authors participated in the writing of the manuscript.

Angiosperm evolution

All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Reprints and Permissions. Search all BMC articles Search. Abstract Background GSK3 glycogen synthase kinase 3 genes encode signal transduction proteins with roles in a variety of biological processes in eukaryotes. Results Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic analyses resolve a gene tree with four major gene duplication events that coincide with the emergence of novel land plant clades.

Conclusions Our phylogenetic analyses provide the most detailed reconstruction of GSK3 gene evolution in land plants to date and offer new insights into the origins, relationships, and functions of family members.

Figure 1. Full size image. Figure 2.